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• leaves canada in january to complete his M.A. program

• while in the United States, buys a holga 120n and begins shooting with medium-format film for the first time

returns to toronto in july, reuniting with TAF; successfully applies for membership at gallery 44 in september

has his work published in a zine for the first time (plastic perspective vol. 5 by anna starr)

• buys an iskra, electing to continue with 6x6 medium-format

• releases his first zine, special delivery from krasnogorsk

• sells the mju.


​• joins the toronto analog friends collective after attending a TAF photo walk

• earns his second café exhibition ("alien shores") at first & last in toronto


earns his first café exhibition ("a.m. / p.m.") at white rabbit coffee in nanaimo

​• moves to toronto for grad school in august

continues his practice of shooting cityscapes while waiting to begin his M.A. program


​• has the black spotmatic overhauled, with the intent of making it his permanent workhorse camera

enters a period of prolific activity before and during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic

sells his first print


wants greater flexibility in his photographic practice; buys a pentax spotmatic off of facebook marketplace

teaches himself the basics of night-time long-exposure photography

buys a second spotmatic — this time, a black one


• buys an olympus mju-1 as a creative outlet to cope with a new year's breakup

spends the next year and a half using the mju to document gatherings, parties and city scenes


• buys a nikon f3 for his 20th birthday; breaks it shortly thereafter

• becomes disillusioned with photography and stops, selling all of his cameras over the next several years


• continues to learn the basics of photography

• buys his second film camera — a black pentax spotmatic

shoots kodachrome 64 before the permanent worldwide discontinuation of k-14 processing


​• at the age of 17, purchases his first film camera — a canon ae-1 program — off of craigslist

• spends the rest of the year learning to shoot film, with varying degrees of success


​• at 15, takes a photography class in high school and is introduced to darkroom processes

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